Kökeni Moskova Devlet Sosyal Üniversitesi olan, İngilizce olarak hazırlanmış diyalektiğin ilkelerini anlatan bir makalenin ilk bölümünü bloğumuzda daha once 5 Mayıs 2013 tarihinde yayımlamış idik. Bu makalenin ikinci bölümü ise aşağıda yer almaktadır.
Basic Principles of Dialectics (II)
Principle of development
Is a direct consequence of the movement of the main property (attribute) of matter. However, the principle of development provides a numerous types of movement, its leading form - development. Movement can be circular (reversible), regressive and progressive (irreversible forms of movement). Development accumulates the features of all three species of movement, it implies the irreversibility (the impossibility of a full return to starting point), continuity (linking new and old), orientation, cyclicity.
Principle of universal connection
Is inseparable from the principle of development, as it reveals condition for the realization of the first principle. The emergence, change, development is impossible in an isolated state, it requires internal and external communication. Finally, the very deployment of contradictions as the main content the principle of development is a special form of the relationship of opposites.
Principle of identity (unity) of dialectics, logic and theory of knowledge
It expresses the unity of the laws of development, the totality of the development process, spectacular nature, and human thought and society.
This principle resulted in some confusion of Marxist dialectics. In Hegelian dialectic of this principle is embodied (as a principle of the identity of thinking and being) with all possible sequence. In the materialist dialectic difficulties with its use. His other language – unity dialectics of objective dialectics of nature and the dialectic of subjective dialectical thinking. In this formulation, the distinction of different forms of dialectics recognized, but not disclosed. When will appear the names of three different theoretical disciplines - dialectics, logic and theory of knowledge, then becomes evident and "principled" the existence of development in different forms. One proposed answer is as follows: the dialectics studying the manifestation of evolution in nature, this dialectic of objectivity, logic studying the features of development in human thinking, theory of knowledge trying to link the dialectics of objective and subjective with the principle of reflection.
Principle of ascent from the abstract to the concrete
It accumulate in a cognitive opportunity laws and categories of dialectics, it organizes learning process. "Abstract" and "concrete" has several meanings. Most of the abstract in everyday life is understood as a synonym conceptuality, in contrast to the sensuality, imagery, which, respectively, and there concrete. In addition, the abstract - it is a distraction from a number of minor properties and the allocation of core. In this sense, knowledge is always in the abstract, because it generalizes, abstracts from the individual, terms. Concrete that refers both in the abstract, is itself an objective reality, where material and immaterial are not separated.
The abstract and concrete as the stages of cognitive process have different meaning. Concrete - a reflection of objective reality in the system concepts, is the theoretical reproduction of the unity of the manifestations, properties of the object. Abstract - it is turn from the general context, the overall logic development of the object, play any one of its sides and opposing one side of the other. The highest form of concrete – research theory, a typical manifestation of the abstract - "everyday" opinions. Cognition occurs as a movement from the concrete reality, and in particular in cognition.
Principle of the unity of logic and history
It helps to understand how concrete in reality is transformed into concrete in the knowledge. Boolean - is the theoretical reproduction of the real patterns development. Historical - the deployment of reality in time in all the diversity of its specific forms. In addition to the trivial sense of principle of no direct hits an object and its real history, theory --is history, free from accidents, it concluded the ideas associated with understanding of the possibility of knowing the past, the nature of anticipation of future events, the general mode of existence ( "logical") in our lives.
Scientific analysis chooses the path opposite to the objective development subject: the development of the shape of the object gives an indication of the origins of this facility, "human anatomy - the key to the anatomy monkeys. Developed, "classical" form of the object - is the attainment of full identify its structure, accessibility, transparency of its internalties. Subject as if he "shows" themselves, reveals to us something in common, "Logical", that is the law of its development. For its past states of the highest stage of the object becomes a kind of "purpose". For explorer view as a kind of realization of opportunities embedded in it, as the achievement of "purpose" becomes a tool for studying stages of its development, finding the moment of its occurrence. Logical helps we "recognize" the past, resulting in the logic of the object and itsreal story the same.
This principle is inseparable from the principle of identity life and thought in his interpretation of Hegel: General ("logical") begins to live his own life in the fabric of history, at a certain stage it begins is reflected on himself and returns to its roots through reflective thinking. Although the materialist dialectic this principle only points the way human knowledge of history, researchers trying to play this principle throughout the volume of their connotations, came to the idea of objective existence of logical as an ideal in history (EV Ilyenkov).
Another non-trivial conclusion from principle of unity of logical and historical - turning the dialectic in past, but not in the future. Owl of Minerva flies at midnight "- people do not can catch the way, the direction of transformation object in the future because regularities, "logic" it has not yet formed, it is still sinking in countless external relations opportunities. Can be judged only on the past, when we already have ‘putevoditelnuyu’ (rusça) thread as a result of the process, has reached its limit of semantic development. It tries to anticipate future based on our knowledge have not yet developed the subject, yet established integrity inevitably leads to tyranny of thinking. This conclusion not agree with the pathos of turning the materialist dialectic in the future. Hegel's system is inseparable from his method, the idealistic system "attracted" to the dialectic itself, did not give her opportunity to live the life the material world.
Dialectical thinking as a real cognitive and creative process arose with man and society. Measure dialectical human thinking on the level of social practice and respectively, the degree of knowledge of the dialectics of being adequately reflected which is a prerequisite for a reasonable orientation of man in the world and transform it for the people.
Moscow State Social University
Academy of Sociology and Management
Faculty of Social Tourism